baltic sea animals

Focusing on key Baltic Sea wildlife species such as grey (Halichoerus grypus), ringed seals (Pusa hispida), harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra), pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus), common eiders (Somateria mollissima) and white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), we highlight the need for understanding, identifying and quantifying … For example, birds are assessed at level 1 which is the whole region, salmon and sea trout, as well as zooplankton are assessed at level 2 which further subdivides the Baltic Sea into sub-basins. as high-resolution image. In all, these events have resulted in severe reduction of the abundance of marine mammals in the Baltic Sea, although today, the situation has improved for several seal populations. Download Figure 5.4.1 with confidence map as high-resolution image. The fate and impacts of those pharmaceuticals in the environment is still largely unknown. Counted number of grey seals during 2002-2016, based on monitoring at haul-outs during moulting time. The threshold values applied in this assessment were in most cases established based on scientific proposals from the HELCOM TARGREV project (HELCOM 2013d), where statistical breakpoints were identified from historical datasets and hindcast model simulations extending back to the beginning of the 1900s. Some antifouling additives from ship coating reduces the photosynthetic efficiency of seagrass. 2016). Around 1,300 grey seals are estimated for the other parts of the Gulf of Bothnia, 2,000 for the southern Baltic Sea and less than 1,000 for the Gulf of Finland. Major threats to seagrass result from nutrient inputs and habitat loss, the majority of which are from land such as from the oversupply of fertilisers or improperly treated waste water. As a rule they are very peaceful animals and a spiny dogfish rarely attacks people unless provoked. Reaching a good status earlier than 2050 might bring about even greater benefits, as people generally place more value on goods and services that they obtain sooner. #sea #vitaminsea #travel #needs, Mykonos 🌺 #greece #mykonos #griechenland #trave, In every voyage, be fully present. Most of these are at risk from human activity, and many fish populations are now thought to be dangerously low. 2016). See also Supplementary report: HELCOM 2017A. Marine fish include herring, cod, hake, plaice, sculpin, shorthorn, stickleback, flounder, and turbot. One death has already been reported. The following animals are examples of species listed as endangered or vulnerable in the Baltic Sea area: the sturgeon (Acipenser sturio) has been found only sporadically during the last century and is classified as extinct on the Swedish Red List (Gärdenfors 2000), while it is generally listed as critically endangered by IUCN. Values of at least 0.6 correspond to good status. Each of these has specific threshold values defined for each substance (or substance group). Despite the weak results (Figure 5.4.6), the status of ringed seal in the integrated assessment is likely overestimated for the southern management unit. Additionally, re-suspension of sediments reduces light availability, leading to decreased photosynthesis and decreased growth. It is important to acknowledge the related uncertainties when using such value estimates. Progress in reaching nutrient reduction targets is evaluated based on annual compilations of the nutrient inputs to the Baltic Sea (HELCOM Pollution Load Compilations). The water here is so calm, like a bathtub but without a plug hole – it takes over 30 years for the … The Kattegat-Belt Sea-Western Baltic sub-population is also assessed as threatened (HELCOM 2013b), albeit with the lower threat status ‘vulnerable’. Such cascading effects can also result in changes in community composition and biodiversity. Maritime activities, which is a focal area of HELCOM and one of the four BSAP segments, is linked to several of the descriptors, including eutrophication contaminants, and non-indigenous species. The team suggested their sonar image showed an object with unusual features of seemingly non-natural … Download Figure B3.4.2 as high-resolution image. Value estimates are in purchasing power parity adjusted 2015 euros. The data layers used in this assessment include all layers listed in HELCOM (2018E). They will spend several months in these waters. Nevertheless, there is no need to panic about this shark species. It is protected by the Baltic States, as well as by many other European countries. (2015). In the exhibition, however, you will not only learn more about their biology, you will also hear that researchers … It is worth noting that there is more uncertainty about these estimates compared to the estimates for eutrophication and recreation, as some of the values are based on benefit transfer. weever. Results from currently available analyses are presented in this chapter for recreation (Box 3.4), eutrophication (chapter 4, section 4.1 Eutrophication, Box 4.1.2 at the bottom of the page) selected biodiversity aspects (chapter 5, section 5.6 Biodiversity summary and food web aspects, Box 5.6.1 at the bottom of the page; see also HELCOM 2018A). When food webs are disturbed, due to a decrease of big predatory fish for example, this may also affect the number of small animals among the seaweed and the quality of this habitat. Incidental by-catch of mammals in fishing gear, Box 4.7.1 Method to estimate loss and disturbance of the seabed, Box 4.6.1. Download Figure 5.4.7 as high-resolution image. Figure 5.4.3. Explorers discovered the odd-shaped object on the ocean bed of the Baltic Sea in June 2011. The total losses are estimated at 3.8–4.4 billion euros annually for the Baltic Sea region. Value estimates are in purchasing power parity adjusted 2015 euros. The invasive species Crassostrea gigas is considered to compete with blue mussels and may alter the effects of anthropogenic pressures due to different tolerance levels towards the pressures (Figure B.6.1.2). Moreover, shell growth and mortality are negatively affected by the interactive effects of reduced salinity and increased temperature. Species which are found and fished in the Baltic Sea, but for which the Baltic Sea fisheries have limited importance are not included, such as mackerel (Scomber scombrus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), ling (Molva molva), saithe (Pollachius virens) and anchovy (Engraulidae), nor commercial species in coastal and transitional waters which are assessed nationally. Other species are local and cannot move, even if the local environment changes, and the water masses around them have travelled long distances and include substances from sources far away. The aim is to ensure that 40 % of mature eels make it to the sea, in relation to estimated pristine conditions. If several threshold values are available, thresholds based on environmental quality standards (EQS) and the sampling matrix biota are preferred. The ringed seals belong to two different management units: the Gulf of Bothnia and an assessment unit covering the Gulf of Finland, Gulf of Riga, Estonian coastal waters and the Archipelago Sea. This assumption is not likely to last with a changing climate, as the physical environment is also changing and will feedback upon the biogeochemical cycling, for example by enhancing growth and mineralization rates. The population sizes of grey seal are increasing, but their nutritional and reproductive status is not good. Out of the four species of marine mammals in the Baltic Sea, grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) occurs in the whole region, whereas harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) is restricted to the southwestern Baltic Sea and the Kattegat, and ringed seal (Pusa hispida) to the eastern and northern Baltic Sea. Eel is subject to many pressures in its natural environment, and the recent declines can likely be explained by a combination of several factors, including overfishing, inland habitat loss and degradation, mortality in hydropower turbines, contaminants, parasites and climatic changes in the spawning area (Moriarty and Dekker 1997, ICES 2017f). Thematic assessment of biodiversity 2011–2016 The assessment is based on currently available core indicators. Ringed seal is in a critical state in the Gulf of Finland, where it is currently only represented by around 100 animals and has a decreasing abundance. The fauna of the Baltic sea is a mixture of marine and freshwater species. The status of the ringed seal is assessed as not good (Figure 5.4.6). Increased water temperatures caused by climate change not only affect growth and survival of seagrass but may also favour the spreading of pathogens, such as the potentially epidemic wasting disease which has been responsible for major seagrass declines in the past. Some sharks get lost in the eastern waters for a short time, but turn back towards the North Sea early. Effects of selected human activities on seagrass meadows. By Sarah Nye and Asaf Levy; 2 Background. The linkages between human activities and pressures are outlined in Chapter 3 Humans & the ecosystem, and the impacts of current pressures in the Baltic Sea on species and habitats are assessed using the Baltic Sea Impact index in Chapter 6 Cumulative impacts on the marine environment. Its health and survival is influenced by food availability, fishing pressures, and potentially also underwater sound, marine litter and the quality of available food, and it is dependent as well on the environmental quality of their spawning rivers. Some of these monetary benefits have been assessed in a stated preference choice experiment study carried out in Sweden, Finland and Lithuania in 2011, which elicited citizens’ willingness to pay for improvements with regard to aspects related to marine biodiversity (Kosenius and Ollikainen 2015). Table B3.1. Diving waterbirds are especially vulnerable to being entangled in gill nets and other types of nets. For the sake of making the checklist more exact these sub basins have beenused when presenting the distributional … Eel is listed as critically endangered (HELCOM 2013b). Their exposure to accumulated pressures make marine mammals important indicators of the health of the ecosystem. A large part of this sub-population occurs around the shallow offshore banks south of Gotland in summer during calving and mating. Monitoring of biota reflects the accumulation of contaminants in the living environment. In combination with acidification, effects on early development stages and on shell thickness have been observed. Example on how human activities benefit from an impact on the environment. The value for biodiversity is, for the most part, independent of the use of the marine environment, and more related to the knowledge that habitats and species exist and are in good health. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Öresund, the Great Belt and the Little Belt. In the Baltic Sea, there is a decreasing number of licensed fishermen targeting eel, and there have been efforts to ban recreational fishing and to decrease the number of licensed fishers (ICES 2016c). The aim is to ensure human health is not detrimentally impacted. 2012). The extent of pressures was estimated based on the information from the literature, and the data sets were aggregated into two layers representing physical loss and physical disturbance, respectively. The Baltic Sea also encompasses the Bay of Bothnia, the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Riga, the Bay of Gdansk, and the Gulf of Finland. The losses in value of Baltic Sea recreation, due to deterioration of the marine environment, are measured based on a change in citizens’ recreation values from a one-step change in the perceived status of the Baltic Sea marine environment. Animal Transport; Levelers; Dollys; Low Loaders; Header Trailers; Weights; Belt Systems; Misc; Farm Buildings; Gameplay; FS17; PS4 / XB1; CONTEST FS19. The antibiotic claritromycin was detected in two out of 126 water samples and on one occasion in biota. Figure 5.4.8. These mobile top predators have an important role in regulating the food web, but are also sensitive to pressures in all their areas of distribution, as well as to changes in the food web. Physical disturbance is defined as a change to the seabed which can be reverted if the activity causing the disturbance ceases (EC 2017a). 2016). The aggregated layers were also compared with information on the spatial distribution of broad benthic habitat types, in order to estimate the potentially lost and disturbed area of benthic habitats (Supplementary report: HELCOM 2017D). Eel has recently been included in Appendix II of the Convention of Migratory Species, and they are also conserved through the EU Habitats Directive. 2015, Welden and Cowie 2017). Maximum ventilation occurred in May 2016. A rough estimate indicated that between 100 000 and 200 000 waterbirds drown annually in the North and Baltic Seas, of which the great majority drowns in the Baltic Sea (Žydelis et al. The indicators used in the respective sub-chapters are listed in Table B.1.3.1 and Table B.1.3.2. Download Figure B6.1.1 as high-resolution image. A QS value can be used for the assessment provided that it corresponds to at least the same level of protection as the environmental quality standard. With a common recruitment area in the Sargasso Sea all eel in Europe and the Mediterranean are part of the same (panmictic) population, occurring in scattered marine, coastal, river and lake ecosystems. The Baltic Sea Action Plan and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive have similar goals and objectives, and thus, progress towards achieving the regional aim can be assessed using the same indicators and tools. The ringed seal is categorised as vulnerable on the HELCOM Red List (HELCOM 2013a). The three Baltic seal species have also been evaluated under the EU Habitats Directive in 2013. Background assessment criteria have been developed by OSPAR and ICES to define the background concentrations of naturally occurring substances, and close to zero concentrations for man-made substances. The effects can also be hierarchically dependent. 2012). For example, birds are assessed at level 1 which is the whole region, salmon and sea trout, as well as zooplankton are assessed at level 2 which further subdivides the Baltic Sea into sub-basins. However, ‘good status’ for the indicator requires that the threshold value is achieved for both parameters. During the period 2002 to 2013, pharmaceuticals were detected in about 14% of the water, sediment and biota samples in the Baltic Sea (HELCOM 2016c). In other seas it lives in the intertidal zone, but in the Baltic Sea it lives continuously submerged. Harbour porpoise in the Baltic Proper: Predicted probability of detecting harbour porpoise per month between May and October (left) and between November and April (right). Furthermore, the Baltic Sea is a resource for fish and amber, which can be found along the Russian shore around Kaliningrad. In the Gotland deep, oxygen conditions ranged from -8.75 ml/l (in November 2013) to 2.9 ml/l (in April 2015 at 235 m depth; Nausch et al. However, these sharks usually live at depths between 200 and 500 metres and live in larger shoals. The number of grey seals in their core area of moulting distribution (covering the Bothnian Sea, Archipelago Sea and Western Estonian waters), is counted at over 25,000 in 2016. However, in many cases the analytical level of detection of the methods were not sensitive enough to give a result. Download Figure B6.1.2 as high-resolution image. Figure 5.4.6. 2014). Welcome to a small village at the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is no stranger to dead zones. We have already written an article about sharks in the North Sea, the page can be found here. 2015), and was followed by smaller events. The range comes from the 95% confidence intervals for the value estimates reported in the original study. Figure B.6.1.2. The results suggest that citizens’ welfare would increase by 1.8 – 2.6 billion euros annually in the Baltic Sea region, if the state of the perennial vegetation and fish stocks improved to a good status (see also Supplementary report HELCOM 2017A). The cause of recent changes may be a combination of factors such as overfishing, inland habitat loss and degradation, mortality in hydropower turbines, contaminants, parasites and climatic changes in the spawning area (Moriarty and Dekker 1997, ICES 2016d). 2012). ... Marine species protected in the Baltic Sea • … 2014). Incidental by-catches also occur in other types of fishing gear, such as longlines and traps (ICES 2013b). Baltic Sea main policies driving the assessment, Box 1.1 Deeper Baltic Sea oxygen conditions during the assessment period, Box 4.1.3 Effects of climate change on eutrophication 2018, Box 4.1.1 HELCOM work on eutrophication 2018, Box 5.4.2. The value for biodiversity is, for the most part, independent of the use of the marine environment, and more related to the knowledge that habitats and species exist and are in good health. When no such data are available, value transfer can be used, so that estimates from a subset of Baltic Sea countries are transferred also to other countries. Distribution of seals: Considering the occurrence at haul-out sites and the range of seals at sea, good status is achieved when the distribution of the species is close to pristine condition. These interacted positively and reached the deep water of the central Baltic Sea for the first time since 2003 (Naumann and Nausch 2015). (2015). An inflow of moderate intensity also occurred between 14 and 22 November 2015. Much valued from antiquity to the … Your email address will not be published. Figure B4.1.2. Oxygen conditions in the deep water have been improved by a series of inflow events since the end of 2013. Figure 5.4.1. Based on systematic literature review using the LiACAT tool (HELCOM 2016h). Other species are local and cannot move, even if the local environment changes, and the water masses around them have travelled long distances and may include harmful substances from sources far away. The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. However, the numbers are associated with high uncertainties, concerning both incidental by-catch numbers and the amount of fishing activity taking place. Indicators marked * have not been adopted in HELCOM yet and are currently tested. These values are referred to as ‘EQS values’, and are set for priority substances with respect to concentrations in water, and for some substances also with respect to concentrations in biota (fish or shellfish). The linkages between human activities and pressures are outlined in Chapter 3 Humans & the ecosystem, and the impacts of current pressures in the Baltic Sea on species and habitats are assessed using the Baltic Sea Impact index in Chapter 6 Cumulative impacts on the marine environment. For harbour porpoise, drowning in fishing gear is a main pressure of concern. to 26 deg. Understanding these linkages also helps reveal important knowledge gaps for setting management targets and helps us to better understand how human activities depend upon, and benefit from, marine ecosystem services. The extent of pressures was estimated based on information from literature, and the data sets were aggregated into two layers, representing physical loss and physical disturbance, respectively. HELCOM has been a major driver in the regional approaches to reduce nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea. Which shark species are dangerous for humans? The Grey Seal is one of the biggest species that can be found in the Baltic Sea area. The status of the eel stock has been poorly documented until recently, with incomplete catch statistics being one issue. Testing table with formatting. White colour denotes areas that were not surveyed. For abundance-based analysis, only taxa that occurred at more than ten sampling events and contributed to the top 90% of the … If a background assessment criterion is used as a threshold value, this can be considered a more cautious assessment compared an environmental quality standard. In comparison, about 45 % of the dead females from the North Sea had reached sexual maturity. The Baltic proper stretches southwest-northeast on the eastern side of the Scandinavian Peninsula from latitude 54° N to very near the Arctic Circle; its major axis, from eastern … Status is shown in five categories based on the integrated biological quality ratios (BQR). Changes in water temperature can be caused by local industrial heat sources or by climate change. The benefits that are lost if the Baltic Sea does not reach a good environmental status are called the cost of degradation. Table 5.5.1 test. The table (right) shows corresponding assessment results for the core indicators, with green denoting ‘good’ status and red ‘not good’ statuses. The results represent the value of reaching good eutrophication status in the Baltic Sea, based on citizens’ stated willingness to pay, in a survey for achieving the target status. Status is shown in five categories based on the integrated biological quality ratios (BQR). Value estimates are in purchasing power parity adjusted 2015 euros. These mobile top predators have an important role in regulating the food web, but are also sensitive to pressures in all their areas of distribution, as well as to changes in the food web. Low-oxygen conditions, often referred to as hypoxia, have cropped up throughout its history, even before humans came onto the scene. The situation of the status for Baltic Proper harbour porpoise is recognised by the agreement on the conservation of small cetaceans in the Baltic, North East Atlantic, Irish and North Seas (ASCOBANS) and is reflected in the ASCOBANS recovery plan for Baltic harbour porpoises (Jastarnia plan, ASCOBANS 2016) and HELCOM Recommendation 17/2 (HELCOM 2013f). According to the core indicator on the distribution of grey seals, good status is not achieved in the southwestern Baltic Sea. The state of ringed seal in the Gulf of Finland is critical, currently represented by ~100 animals. Reaching a good eutrophication status for the Baltic Sea will bring about increased human welfare and economic benefits to citizens in the coastal countries. However, ‘good status’ requires that the threshold value is achieved for both parameters. They are derived taking into consideration information beyond the environmental parameters, such as dietary standards of the concerned human population, typical levels of contaminants in different foodstuff, and trade. Level 3 separates the sub-basins also into coastal and offshore areas, and level 4 uses a finer subdivision of coastal areas in line with national management practices such as water bodies as designated under the EU Water Framework Directive. Documentation of incidental by-catch of harbour porpoise in the Baltic Proper is only fragmented, typically amounting to a few animals per year from the countries reporting. A series of smaller inflow events occurred in November 2013, December 2013, and March 2014. 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